Jason P. Young, M.D. - Orthopedic Sports Medicine & Sports Performance - St. Louis, Missouri
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Knee

Knee Anatomy :: Knee Arthroscopy :: ACL Reconstruction
Meniscal Tears :: Multi-ligament Injury :: PCL Reconstruction
MCL Sprain :: Patellofemoral Dislocation :: High Tibial Osteotomy
Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Tears :: Tibial Tubercle & Tibial Eminence Fractures
Articular Cartilage Disorders :: Patella Fracture :: Patellofemoral Pain
Chondromalacia/OCD :: Chondral Repair :: Fracture :: Malalignment:HTO

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn't heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon

Meniscal Tears

Meniscal tears are one of the most frequently reported injuries to the knee joint. The meniscus is a C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure in the knee incompletely covering the surface of the tibia where it articulates with the femur.

Find out more about Meniscal Tears with the following links.

Meniscal Tears

Multi-ligament Injury

Ligaments are the fibrous tissue brands connecting the bones in the joint and stabilizing the joint. Knee joint has 2 sets of ligaments-collateral ligaments (medial and collateral ligaments) that connect the bones on outer side of the knee and cruciate ligaments (anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament) those present inside the joint.

Find out more about Multi-ligament Injury with the following links.

Multi-ligament Injury

PCL Reconstruction

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of four major ligaments of the knee is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.

Find out more about PCL Reconstruction with the following links.

PCL Reconstruction

MCL Sprain

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament that is located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee. Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury can result in a stretch, partial tear, or complete tear of the ligament. Injuries to the MCL commonly occur as a result of a pressure or stress on the outside part of the knee. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be torn along with a MCL injury.

Find out more about MCL Sprain with the following links.

MCL Sprain

Patellofemoral Dislocation

Patella (knee cap) is a protective bone attached to the quadriceps muscles of the thigh by quadriceps tendon. Patella attaches with the femur bone and forms a patellofemoral joint. Patella is protected by a ligament which secures the kneecap from gliding out and is called as medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL).

Find out more about Patellofemoral Dislocation with the following links.

Patellofemoral Dislocation

High Tibial Osteotomy

High tibial osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which the bone at the upper end of the tibia (shin bone) is cut and realigned. It is usually performed in arthritic conditions affecting only one side of your knee and the aim is to take pressure off the damaged area and shift it to the other side of your knee with healthy cartilage. During the surgery, your surgeon will remove or add a wedge of bone either below or above the knee joint depending on the site of arthritic damage.

Find out more about High Tibial Osteotomy with the following links.

High Tibial Osteotomy

Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Tears

Quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. The quadriceps tendon works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg. The quadriceps muscles are the muscles located in front of the thigh.

Find out more about Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Tears with the following links.

Quadriceps/Patellar Tendon Tears

Tibial Tubercle & Tibial Eminence Fractures

Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is avulsion (tear away) of the tibial eminence (an extension on the bone for attachment of muscles) which most commonly involves the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insertion site. This injury represents the childhood equivalent of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and may occur as a result of abnormal outward bending or twist, injuries caused by sudden halt of moving joints, excessive flexion (bending inwards) and internal rotation as happens in skiing and also in motor vehicle accidents.

Find out more about Tibial Tubercle & Tibial Eminence Fractures with the following links.

Tibial Tubercle & Tibial Eminence Fractures

Articular Cartilage Injury

Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping. Articular cartilage does not have a direct blood supply to it so has less capacity to repair itself. Once the cartilage is torn it will not heal easily and can lead to degeneration of the articular surface, leading to development of osteoarthritis.

Find out more about Articular Cartilage Injury with the following links.

Articular Cartilage Injury

Patella Fracture

Coming soon

Find out more about Patella Fracture with the following links.

Patella Fracture

Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner's knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is seen in number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella that cause pain around the front of the knee. Patellofemoral pain is a common complaint among runners, jumpers, and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players and therefore is the common name, runner's knee.

Find out more about Patellofemoral Pain with the following links.

Patellofemoral Pain

Chondromalacia/OCD

Coming soon

Find out more about Chondromalacia/OCD with the following links.

Chondromalacia/OCD

Chondral Repair

The bony surface of the knee is covered by articular or hyaline cartilage which helps in smooth interaction between the two bones in knee joint. Articular cartilage withstands pressure of the knee during daily activities and the activities that may have more impact on knees such as sport activities. Bearing more weights may cause damage to the cartilage and because of poor regeneration capacity of cartilage knee can be easily damaged causing chondral injuries and osteoarthritis.

Find out more about Chondral Repair with the following links.

Chondral Repair

Fracture

Coming soon

Find out more about Fracture with the following links.

Fracture

Malalignment:HTO

Coming soon

Find out more about Malalignment:HTO with the following links.

Malalignment:HTO

Streaming Videos

Please use the links below to get more information from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons:

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rthroscopy Association of North America
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Partners for the Advancement of Surgical Education
The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
Steadman Hawkins Clinic of the Carolinas
Loyola University Chicago
Hawkins Foundation
SSM Physical Therapy

© Jason P. Young M.D. Orthopedic Sports Medicine Shoulder Elbow & Knee St. Louis Missouri

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